This is a view of the 11th century Norman castle and cathedral in Durham (UK) which after the conquest of England by William the Conqueror became the capital of an autonomous Norman principality established north of York on the borderlands between England and Scotland. This borderland realm was ruled by prince-bishops residing in Durham castle and played an important role in the defense of Northern England. The famous Battle of Neville's Cross between Scotland and England was fought near the city in 1346. Medieval Durham was located on a narrow peninsula surrounded by river on three sides so that the castle guarded the only road leading to the cathedral which was a major pilgrimage site where St. Cuthbert, St. Oswald and venerable Bede (famous chronicler and historian) are buried. The whole complex was never breached by an assault and today, together with two preserved medieval bridges it is a UNESCO site with some of the best preserved monuments of 11th century Norman architecture in Britain (although in later centuries gothic elements like pinnacles and large windows with tracery were added). It is also site of the third oldest university in England founded by prince-bishops after Oxford and Cambridge. The castle today is inhabited by students and serves as a college. I have been told many scenes of the Harry Potter movie were filmed here.